ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
SENIOR PROJECT DIRECTOR

Jay Hershenson

PROJECT ADVISOR

Gail O. Mellow

PROJECT DIRECTOR

Richard K. Lieberman

ASSOCIATE PROJECT DIRECTOR

Steven A. Levine

ASSISTANT PROJECT DIRECTORS

Dorothy Megan Beene

Tara Jean Hickman

ADMINISTRATION

Eduvina Estrella

PRINT DESIGN

Abigail Sturges

PRINT DESIGN ASSISTANT

Gerrit Albertson

COVER

Juan Rodriguez

EDITOR

Joe Margolis

LAGUARDIA AND WAGNER ARCHIVES STAFF

Maritza Aguirre

Soraya Ciego-Lemur

Douglas Di Carlo

Maureen Drennan

Oleg Kleban

Marcos Tejeda

Kate Zou

CONSULTING SCHOLAR

Carol Groneman, Professor Emerita, John Jay College

CONSULTANTS

Pennee Bender, Associate Director/Producer, American

Social History Project, CUNY Graduate Center

Joshua Brown, Executive Director, American Social History Project

Blanche Wiesen Cook, Distinguished Professor, John Jay College

Marcia M. Gallo, Assistant Professor, Lehman College

Gerald Markowitz, Distinguished Professor, John Jay College

Andrea Ades Vásquez, Associate Director, American Social History Project

SPECIAL THANKS

Carol Abrams, Chief Communications Officer,

Baruch College

Mary Ellen Antonatos, Corbis/Bettmann

Michael Arena, University Director of Marketing and Communications, University Relations, CUNY

Jean Ashton, Vice President and Library Director, New-York Historical Society

André Beckles, Photographer/Production Coordinator University Relations, CUNY

Felisa Bienstock, Business Office/Purchasing, LaGuardia Community College

David Birdsell, Dean, School of Public Affairs, Baruch College

Selma Botman, Executive Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs and Provost, CUNY

Shanequa Bush, Office of University Relations, CUNY

Kim Buxton, Office of University Relations, CUNY

Nancy Carter, North Wind Picture Archives

Jody Cary, Publications Manager, Gilder-Lehrman Collection

Jo Ellen Mc Killop Dickie, Public Services Librarian, The Newberry Library

Stephanie Doba, Newspaper in Education Manager, The New York Times Knowledge Network

Allan Dobrin, Executive Vice Chancellor and Chief Operating Officer, CUNY

Coi Drummond-Gehrig, Denver Public Library

A. Craig Dunn, Manager of Corporate Partnerships, Education, The New York Times

Robert Edelstein, Marketing Services Department, The New York Times

Richard Elliott, Vice President for Administration, LaGuardia Community College

Randy Fader-Smith, Marketing and Communication Office, LaGuardia Community College

Susan Farkas, Chief of the United Nations Radio and Television Service

Mary Farrell, Sergeant, Nassau County Police Department

Joe Fodor, Associate Director of Research, Brooklyn College Foundation

Michele Forsten, Director of Communications, New York City College of Technology

Jo Freeman

Ximena Gallardo, English Department, La Guardia Community College

John Garvey, Associate Dean for Collaborative Programs, CUNY

Erika Gottfried, Curator of Nonprint Collections, Tamiment Library/Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives

Pat Gray, Director of Corporate Relations and Special Events, Office of University Relations, CUNY

Meredith Halpern, Director of Public Relations, Hunter College

Ana María Hernández, Education & Language Acquisition Department, LaGuardia Community College

Thomas Hladek, Executive Director of Finance and Business, LaGuardia Community College

Bruce Hoffacker, Executive Associate to the Vice-President for Academic Affairs, LaGuardia Community College

Luz Jimenez, Assistant to the Director of City Relations, CUNY

Peter Katopes, Vice President for Academic Affairs, LaGuardia Community College

Beth G. Kneller, Deputy Director, CUNY Baccalaureate Program

Stephen Koch, Director, The Peter Hujar Archive, L.L.C.

John Kotowski, Director of City Relations, CUNY

Marilyn Kushner, Director of Prints Division, New-York Historical Society

Janet Lieberman, Professor Emerita, LaGuardia Community College

Samuel Lieberman, student, The Calhoun School

Thomas Lisanti, New York Public Library, Rights and Reproduction Division, New York Public Library

Susan Lyddon, Director of Marketing and Communications, LaGuardia Community College

Mail Center Staff, LaGuardia Community College

Ernesto Malave, Vice Chancellor, Office of Budget and Finance, CUNY

Grace Matthews

Judith McCabe, Bread and Roses Cultural Project

Diane McNulty, Executive Director, Corporate Communication, The New York Times

Hourig Messerlian, Deputy to the Secretary, CUNY Board of Trustees

Louise Mirrer, President and C.E.O., The New-York Historical Society

John Mogulescu, Senior University Dean for Academic

Affairs and Dean of the School for Professional Studies, CUNY

Nate Moore, Director/Marketing Communications, York College

Alyse Myers, Vice President, Brand Programs, The New York Times

Livia Nieves, Web Designer, CUNY

Felice Nudelman, Education Marketing Director, The New York Times

Rene Ontal, Faculty Experts Service, University Relations, CUNY

José Orengo, Executive Director for College Advancement, LaGuardia Community College

Ronald Paynter, Purchasing & Account Payable/Business Office, LaGuardia Community College

Anwen Pierce, National Library of Wales

Sheila Pree-Bright

Ana Ramirez-Luhrs, Special Collections Librarian, Gilder-Lehrman

Annelise E. Ream, Creative Director, Estate of Keith Haring

Faith Ringgold

Eneida Rivas, College and Community Relations Office, LaGuardia Community College

Rita Rodin, Media Relations, CUNY

Frederick Schaffer, General Counsel and Senior Vice Chancellor for Legal Affairs, CUNY

Robert Shetterly

Daniel Shure, Managing Editor, CUNY.edu

Vanda Stevenson, Business Office/Accounting, LaGuardia Community College

Charles Tingley, Library Director, St. Augustine Historical Society

Sydney Van Nort, Archivist, City College of New York

Rich Wandel, Archivist/Historian, The Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual And Transgender Community Center National History Archive

Stan Wolfson, Media Relations, CUNY

THIS PUBLICATION IS MADE POSSIBLE IN PART BY GRANTS FROM

NEW YORK CITY DEPARTMENT OF CULTURAL AFFAIRS

Michael Bloomberg, Mayor

Patricia Harris, First Deputy Mayor

Kate Levin, Commissioner

Helen Marshall, Queens Borough President

NEW YORK CITY COUNCIL

Christine Quinn, Speaker

Charles Barron, Council Member, Chair, Higher Education

Committee

Eric Gioia, Council Member, Chair, Oversight and

Investigations Committee

David Weprin, Council Member, Chair, Finance Committee

JPMORGAN CHASE

Jamie Dimon, Chairman and C.E.O.

Leonard Colica, Senior Vice President

Kimberly Davis, Senior Vice President

Kim Jasmin, Vice President

Timothy G. Noble, Vice President

TIAA-CREF

Herbert M. Allison, Jr., Chairman, President and

Chief Executive Officer.

CONSOLIDATED EDISON COMPANY OF NEW YORK, INC.

Thomas Newell, Vice President, Brooklyn-Queens

Electric Operations

Carol Conslato, Director, Queens Public Affairs

Carl Lee, Specialist, Queens Public Affairs

Copyright © 2007 The City University of New York

The Let Freedom Ring Website and Calendar did not involve the reporting or editing staff of The New York Times.


PHOTO CREDITS

MILESTONES

George Washington, by Rembrandt Peale; Frederick Douglass, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Emigrants Crossing the Plains, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division; John Peter Zenger, © North Wind Picture Archives;

President’s Levee, or all Creation going to the White House, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division; Stanton and Anthony, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division; Blanche K. Bruce, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division; Suffrage Tent, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division; Margaret

Sanger, Associated Press; Free Classes in English, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division; General Eisenhower, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division; Their Real Pin-Up Girl, National Archives; African-American janitors, National Archives; Mitsuye Endo, National Archives; American Gothic, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division; Anti-lynching protest, Robert H. McNeill; Jackie Robinson, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division; Little Rock Central High School, Associated Press; Woody Guthrie, Library of Congress, Prints and

Photographs Division; “Fire,” The Herb Block Foundation; John F. Kennedy at the Berlin Wall, Associated Press; Treasure Chest, Catholic University of America; Earth Day, Associated Press; Chinese Veteran, courtesy Corky Lee; Hugo Morales, courtesy CUNY; Speaker Christine C. Quinn, courtesy Marilyn K. Yee, The New York Times Photo Archives; Nydia Velázquez, LaGuardia and Wagner Archives, LaGuardia Community College/CUNY; Antonio Villaraigosa; AP Photo/Danny Moloshok; Freedom Tower, AP Photo/Kathy Willens; Sandra Day O’Connor, courtesy New York Times Photo Archive.

ALUMNI

Bella Abzug, Herman Badillo, Shirley Chisholm, Felix Frankfurter, Pearl Primus, Library  of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division; Carmen Arroyo courtesy Office of Assemblywoman Carmen Arroyo; Phillip Alfonso Berry, William Hallet Greene, Augusta Kappner, Janet Lieberman, Colin Powell, Carlos Sierra, Iyanla Vanzant, courtesy CUNY; Una Clarke, Robert F. Wagner, Sr., LaGuardia and Wagner

Archives, LaGuardia Community College/CUNY; Barbara Boxer, courtesy Office of Senator Barbara Boxer; Richard Carmona, Office of the Surgeon General; Adrian Relu Coman, courtesy International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission; Robert Davila, Galladuet University; Alan Dershowitz, website of Alan Dershowitz; Susan

Farkas, courtesy United Nations; Michele Forsten, New York City College of Technology/CUNY; Deborah Glick, courtesy office of Assemblywoman Glick; Florence Howe, courtesy Feminist Press/CUNY; Elly Gross, courtesy LaGuardia Community College/CUNY; Ramona Hernandez, courtesy Dominican Studies Institute, City College/CUNY; Andrew Goodman, Irene Morgan Kirkaldy, Associated Press; Guillermo Linares, courtesy City of New York; Helen Marshall, courtesy office of the Queens Borough President; A.M. Rosenthal, courtesy The New York Times Photo Archives;

Daniel Schorr, courtesy Lisa Berg; Eric Adams, Office of Senator Eric Adams; Martin Mendelsohn, courtesy Brooklyn College.

DECLARING INDEPENDENCE

Declaration of Independence, National Archives; Franklin, Jefferson and Adams, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

JANUARY

Wanted: Douglass, Tubman and Truth, courtesy Faith Ringgold; Emancipation Day Parade, courtesy Saint Augustine Historical Society; recruitment broadside, The Gilder Lehrman Collection, courtesy Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History; Abraham

Lincoln, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division; Liberty Bell, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division.

FEBRUARY

Fannie Lou Hamer, courtesy Robert Shetterly; March on Washington, Library of  Congress, Prints and Photographs Division; Malcolm X, Associated Press; Martin Luther King, Corbis/Bettmann; Jesse Jackson, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division; Martin Luther King, Jr. and Ralph Bunche marching, Library of Congress,

Prints and Photographs Division.

MARCH

Birth Control Dispenser, Associated Press; Goldie Chu, courtesy Corky Lee; Police Parade, courtesy Sergeant Mary Farrell; Campaign buttons, courtesy Jo Freeman; Sarah Weddington, courtesy The Weddington Center; Diana Reyna, courtesy Office of Councilwoman Reyna; Florence Howe, courtesy Feminist Press/CUNY.

APRIL

“Public Enemy, Fear of a Black Planet,” by B.E. Johnson; Man Preaching, by Sheila Pree; Bill of Rights, United Press International.

MAY

The Sheet Metal Workers’ float, Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives, New York University, New York City Central Labor Council Photographs Collection; Home health aides rally, Associated Press; “Strike!”, by Sue Coe, from the Bread and Roses Cultural Project, Local 1199/S.E.I.U.; Dolores Huerta, © George Bailis/TAKESTOCK Photos; Dennis Rivera, courtesy The New York Times Photo Archives.

JUNE

I ♥ My Moms, AP Photo/Aynsley Floyd; “Gay Liberation Front Poster\Image,” 1970, The Peter Hujar Archive, courtesy Matthew Marks Gallery; Butch Femme Couples, The Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Community Center National History Archive; Keith Haring artwork, © Estate of Keith Haring.

JULY

Shooting Star and her sister, courtesy Denver Public Library; Millions of Acres, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division; Across the Continent, Newberry Library; Chinese railroad workers, The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley; Sitting Bull, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division.

AUGUST

Eleanor Roosevelt, courtesy Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library, National Archives and Records Administration; Four Freedoms, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division; United Nations, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division.

SEPTEMBER

Gun crew, National Archives; Roy Takeno, Stamp’em Out! and United We Win, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division.

OCTOBER

Victory Day parade, Associated Press; Kennedy/Khrushchev cartoon, Atlantic Syndication Partners; Berlin Wall, AP Photo/Lionel Cironneau, File; bomb shelter, Corbis/Bettmann; Army McCarthy Hearing, AP Photo; Bert the Turtle, U.S. Federal Civil Defense Administration.

NOVEMBER

Inglés Para Los Niños, AP Photo/David Zalubowski; Primary grade, General Research & Reference Division, Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, The New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundations; Nettie and Nickie Hunt, Corbis/Bettmann; Save CUNY, Associated Press; William Hallett Greene, courtesy

CUNY, City College, courtesy City College of New York Archives and Special Collections.

DECEMBER

Bus load of “freedom riders,” AP Photo/Perry Aycock; Immigrant Freedom Riders from Miami, AP Photo/Pablo Martinez Monsivais; Immigrant Freedom Riders from Minneapolis, AP Photo/The Capital Times/David Sandell; Washington Freedom Riders Committee, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division.

JANUARY 09

The Fifteenth Amendment, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Martha Graham, Corbis/Bettmann.

PHOTO CREDITS PAGE

Uncle Sam’s Thanksgiving Dinner, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division.

FRONT COVER

Immigration Rally, AP Photo/Mary Altaffer; Sikh-Americans, AP Photo/George Widman; March on Washington, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division; Martin Luther King, Jr., AP Photo.

BACK COVER

Register to Vote, Art © Estate of Ben Shahn/Licensed by VAGA, New York, N.Y., photograph by Susan Einstein, courtesy Skirball Cultural Center, Los Angeles, Calif.

ABOVE This cartoon by Thomas Nast depicts a Thanksgiving dinner with Americans from all backgrounds at the table with Uncle Sam cutting the turkey. Its radical vision of equality was created in support of the 15th Amendment, which granted African-Americans the right to vote. A picture of Castle Clinton, the predecessor to Ellis Island, hangs on the wall along with portraits of Presidents George Washington, Abraham Lincoln and Ulysses S. Grant, 1869.

Back Cover Captions

FRONT COVER

LEFT, TOP TO BOTTOM

A World War II propaganda poster, c. 1943 Pryor Rissover-Plotke waves from a float during the Gay Pride Parade in Chicago, June 30, 2002.

Sikh-Americans carry U.S. flags at an evening parade during Fourth of July festivities in

Philadelphia, July 4, 2002.

CENTER

The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom in Washington, D.C., August 28,

1963.

RIGHT, TOP TO BOTTOM

Outside Gov. George Pataki’s office in New York City, staff and students from the Borough of Manhattan Community College, CUNY, protest budget cuts proposed by the

Governor, Oct. 18, 1995.

The Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. acknowledges the crowd at the Lincoln Memorial for his

“I have a dream” speech during the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom in

Washington, D.C., Aug. 28, 1963.

An immigration rally in Manhattan’s Chinatown, April 10, 2006.

BACK COVER

Register to Vote, by Ben Shahn. Art © Estate of Ben Shahn/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY.