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Jim Crow and the Fight for Civil Rights
Unit six: Division and Reunion; Chapter three: results of the Civil War


These questions and documents can be used in conjunction with of the New York State Education Department standard curriculum for grades 7&8 Social Studies: United States and New York State History. Students will be able to see the connection between the results of the civil war and how that led to Constitutional Amendments 14 and 15 and eventually the civil rights act of 1964.

Main points:
-African American participation in WWII
-Events which would eventually lead to the civil rights acts of 1964
-How are civil rights presented in today’s New York Times

America fought to defend democracy in World War II and denounced fascist beliefs in race superiority and Nazi oppression. African Americans and their white allies thought it unacceptable that racism could persist in the U.S. and they intensified their attacks on racial segregation and disfranchisement.

Student non-violent Coordinating
Committee activists Ronald Martin,
Robert Patterson, and Mark Martin
stage a sit-down strike after being
refused service at a F.W. Woolworth
lunch counter in Greensboro, N.C., in
1960.

America fought to defend democracy in World War II and denounced fascist beliefs in race superiority and Nazi oppression. African Americans and their white allies thought it unacceptable that racism could persist in the U.S. and they intensified their attacks on racial segregation and disfranchisement.

The movement gained strength with the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education decision that called racial segregation in schools "inherently unequal," and the Montgomery, Alabama, bus boycott led by the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. in 1955-1956. In the early 1960s, the movement confronted segregated public facilities, including restaurants, stores, movie theaters, buses, and recreation facilities. Using sit-ins, boycotts, and demonstrations, the civil rights movement had limited success in integrating these establishments.

President Lyndon Baines Johnson signing the
Civil Rights Act of 1964 with the Rev. Martin
Luther King, Jr. standing behind him.
(July 2, 1964)

The use of attack dogs, tear gas, and clubs against non-violent demonstrators in Birmingham, Alabama, in 1963 horrified millions of Americans viewing these scenes on TV. That summer hundreds of thousands gathered in Washington, D.C., for the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, where King gave his "I Have a Dream" speech. The demonstrations would challenge the moral conscience of the nation and help lead to the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. This landmark legislation committed the federal government to preventing discrimination in employment and in all public facilities. A blow had been struck against Jim Crow segregation, but state laws could still be used to prevent African Americans from voting and private social clubs still excluded African Americans.

 

 
 
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